High-Performing and Low-Performing Schools in Makassar Indonesia

Main Article Content

Hasmirati Hasmirati
Ishak Sin
Abdul Latif Kassim


Although the Education Department of South Sulawesi Province reported that the performance of Secondary Schools in Makassar is at unsatisfactory level, but there were some schools achieved high performance level. The varying performance of the schools has prompted the researcher to conduct a multi-site case study to identify whether leadership styles of principals have any relationship with high-performing and low-performing schools in Makassar. In order to achieve the objective of this study, a qualitative approach, using multi-case study research design was utilized. Semi-structured interviews, observations, and document analysis were used to collect data. The sample consisted of two high performing and two low-performing secondary schools in the city of Makassar. Four school principals and 12 teachers of the schools were purposely chosen as respondents of the study. Data were analysed using theme analysis technique. This study found that principals in high-performing schools and low-performing schools were used the different styles of leadership. High-performing schools’ principals emphasized more on teaching and learning, controlling students’ discipline, ensuring teachers’ understanding of the school’s vision, and conducting staff developmental programs. This study has contributed to the development of knowledge in the field of high-performing schools in Indonesia. This study suggests that if a school wants to achieve high-performing level, principals must ensure that the teachers teach and students learn.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Hasmirati, H., Sin, I., & Kassim, A. L. (2020). High-Performing and Low-Performing Schools in Makassar Indonesia. Journal of Research and Multidisciplinary, 3(1), 267-283. https://doi.org/10.5281/jrm.v3i1.32


Abdul Karim Mohd Nor. (1989). Characteristics of effective rural secondary schools in Malaysia.Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Anwar Arifin. (2005). AnalisisisiataspenjelasanUndang-undangSistem PendidikanNasionalNomor 20 tahun 2003. Jakarta: DirektoratTenaga Kependidikan DepartemenPendidikanNasional.
Arnold, D.H., Zeljo,A. &Doctoroff , G.L. (2008).Parent involvement in preschool: Predictors and the relation of involvement to preliteracy development. School Psychology Review, 37(1), 74-90.

Arzi, H. (2003). Enhancing science education laboratory environment: More than wall, benches and widgets.In Fraser, B.J., &Tobin, K.G. (Eds). International Handbook of Science Education, Vol. (1), Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers

Austin, G. R. (1978). Process evaluation: A comprehensive study of outliers. Baltimore, MD: Maryland Department of Education (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED160644). Retrieved October 3, 2009 from: ERIC
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy, dalam V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.). Encyclopedia of human behavior. New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in H. Friedman [Ed.], Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego: Academic Press,1998), 4, 71-81.
Baron, R.A., & J. Greenberg. (1990). Behavior in the organization: Understanding and managing the human side of work, third edition. Toronto: Allyn and Bacon.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectation. New York: Free Press.
Berg, B. L. (2004). Qualitative research method for the social sciences (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
Berg, B. L. (2007). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (6th ed.). San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc.

Billingsley, B. S., & Cross, L. H. (1992). Predictors of commitment, job satisfaction, and intent to stay in teaching: A comparison of general and special educators.
The Journal of Special Education, 25(4), 453-471.
Black, S. (2001). Morale matters. American School Board Journal, January, 40-43.
Blase, J. R. &Blase, J. (1998). Handbook of instructional leadership: How really good principals promote teaching and learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Beach, D. &Reinhartz, J. (2000). Supervisory leadership: Focus on instruction. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Bogdan, R. C., &Bikien, S. K. (2003). Qualitative research for education: An introductionto theories and methods (fourth ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.
Bogdan, R. C., &Biklen, S. K. (1992). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods. Boston, MA: Allyn& Bacon.
Bossert, S. T., Dwyer, D., Rowan, B., & Lee, G. (1982). The instructional management role of the principal. Educational Administration Quarterly, 18 (3), 34-64.
Boyer, D. P. (2012).A study of the relationship between the servant leader principal on school culture and student achievement in the Lower Kuskokwim School District, Ed.D degree Grand Canyon University.125 p; 3498714.
Brannen, J. (1997). Memadumetodepenelitiankualitatifdankuantitatif, PustakaPelajar, Yogyakarta.
Brookover, W. B., Beady, C., Flood, P., Schweitzer, J., &Wisenbaker, J. (1979). School social system and student achievement: Schools make a difference. New York: Praeger.
Brookover, W. B., &Lezotte, L. W. (1979). Changes in school characteristics coincident with changes in student achievement. East Lansing: Institute for Research on Teaching, College of Education, Michigan University.
Brink H. I. L. (1993). Validity and reliability in qualitative research Curationis. 16(2), 35-38. doi: 10.4102/curationis.v16i2.1396.
Bruce. A, Lloyd. J, W., & Kennedy. M, J. (2012). Targets of self-monitoring: Productivity, accuracy, and attention, In Bryan G. Cook, Melody Tankersley, Timothy J. Landrum (eds.) Classroom Behaviour, Contexts, and Interventions (Advances in Learning and Behavioural Disabilities, (25) Emerald Group Publishing Limited,1 – 21.
Brookover, W., Schweitzer, J., Schneider, J., Beady, C., Flood, P., &Wisenbaker, J. (1978). Elementary school social climate and school achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 15, 137-156.301-318.
Brophy, J. E., & Good, T. I. (1986). Teacher behaviour and student achievement. Dalam M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Buchanan, B. (2007). Sick buildings, sick students. American School Board Journal, 194 (6), 48-50. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database.
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership, New York: Harper Colophon Books.
Byrne, B. M. (1993). Burnout: Testing for the validity, replication, and invariance of
The causal structure across elementary, intermediate, and secondary teachers. American Education Research Journal, 31 (3), 645-673
Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Diagnosis and changing organizational culture based on the computing value framework. Reading, MA:Wesley.
Candis, Y.H. (2003). The Home Environment of Gifted Puerto Rican Children. Retrieved on March 3, 2008 from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/ncbepubs/symposia/third.html
Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions: Sage Publications the University of California. 0761901434, 9780761901433.
Creswell, J. W. (2010). Research design pendekatankualitatif, kuantitatif, dan mixed (Ed. ke-3).Yogyakarta.
Celep, C. (2000). Teachers’ organizational commitment in educational organizations, in the national forum of Teacher Education Journal, 10(3), ED 452179.
Chapman, D. W. (1993). Teacher incentives in the third world, Teaching and Teacher Education, 9 (3), 301-316.
Chapman, C., Muijs, D., Reynolds, D., Sammons, P., &Teddlie, C. (2015).Effective school processes, InThe Routledge international handbook of educational effectiveness and improvement: Research, policy, and practice. Routledge. Retrieved on 31 Dismember 2016. fromhttps://www.routledgehandbooks.com/doi/10.4324/9781315679488.ch3
Cheng Y. C. (1996). School-based management: A mechanism for development. The Falmer Press Washington, D.C.
Cheng, Y.C., Tsui, K.T., K. W. Chow, & M. M. C. Mok (eds.) (2002). Subject teaching and teacher education in the new century: Research and innovation. Hong Kong & Dordrecht: Hong Kong Institute of Education & Kluwer Academic Puhlishers. (pp.1-544) (22 chapters).

Chism, N.V.N. (2006). Challenging traditional assumptions and rethinking learning spaces. InOblinger, D.G. (Ed.).Learning Spaces, hlm. 2.0-2.12. Educause. Retrieved from www.educause.edu/learningspaces [15 September 2007].
Coladarci, T. (1992). Teachers’ sense of efficacy and commitment to teaching, Journal of Experimental Education, 60 (4), 323-37.
Cole, P. (2012). Linking effective professional learning with effective teaching practice. The Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership.
Cole, M. S., Field, H. S., & Harris, S. G. (2004). Student learning motivation and psychological hardiness: Interactive effects on students’ reactions to a management class. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 3(1), 64–85.
Coleman, J. S., Campbell, E. Q., Hobson, C. F., McPartland, J., Mood, A. M., &Weinfeld, F. D.(1966). Equality of educational opportunity. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
Cole, M. S., Harris Switzerland, S. G., &Bernert,J. B. (2006). Exploring the implications of vision, appropriateness, and execution of organizational change: USA Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27 (5), 352-367. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Connie. (2013). The influence of professional competence, work motivation, and innovativeness on the performance of the physics teachers. 2 nd International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education, (ISQAE 2013)* Universitas Negeri Jakarta.

Cox, T. (1991). The multicultural organization. Academy of Management Executive,
5, 34-47.

Cybulski, T. G., Hoy, W.K., &Scott, R. S. (2005). The roles of collective efficacy of teachers and fiscal efficiency in student achievement, Journal of Educational Administration, 43 (5), 439 – 461.

Cynthia Uline, Megan Tschannen-Moran. (2008). The walls speak: the interplay of quality facilities, school climate, and student achievement, Journal of Educational Administration, 46(1), 55-73.

Darling-¬Hammond, L. (1992). Teaching and knowledge: Policy issues posed by alternate certification for teachers. Peabody Journal of Education, 67(3), 123–154.

Davis, G. A., & Thomas, M. A. (1989). Effective schools and effective teachers. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Day, C., & Sammons, P. (2013). Successful leadership: A review of the international literature. University of Nottingham.
Day, C., Johansson, O., & Moller, J. (2011). Sustaining improvement in students learning and achievement: The importance of resilience in leadership,In Moos, L., Johansson, O. & Day, C. (Eds.), How school principals sustain success over time. Dordrecht: Springer.
Day, C., Sammons, P., Leithwood, K., Hopkins, D., Harris, A., Gu, Q., & Brown, E. (2010). Ten Strong Claims about Successful School Leadership, The National College for School Leadership, Nottingham.
Deci, E. L. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum Press
DepartemenPendidikanNasional,(2005). Undang-UndangNomor 14 Tahun 2005, Tentang Guru dan Dosen, Jakarta: Depdiknas.
Eady, C., & Zepeda, S. J. (2007). Evaluation, supervision, and staff development under mandated reform: The perceptions and practices of rural middle school principals. The Rural Educator, 28 (2), 1–27.

Edmonds, R. (1979). Effective schools for the urban poor, Educational Leadership, 37 (1),16-18.

Fraser, B.J. (1998). Classroom environment instruments: Development, validity and applications. Learning Environment Research: An International Journal, 1, 7-33.

Fried, R. L. (2001).The passionate teacher: A practical guide. Boston: Beacon Press.

Glatthorn, A. A. (1990). Supervisory leadership: Introduction to instructional supervision. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 177-179.
Glatthorn, A. A., &Fox, L. E., (1996) Quality teaching through professional development. Principals taking action series (2nd ed.): Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Glickman, C., Gordon, S., & Ross-Gordon, J. (2001). Supervision and instructional leadership (5th Ed). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Glickman, C. D., Gordon, S. P., & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2005). The basic guide to supervision and instructional leadership. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Glickman, C. D., Gordon, S. P., & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2007). Supervision of instruction: A developmental approach. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Green, R. L. (2010). The four dimensions of principal leadership: A framework for leading 21st century schools. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Guay, F., Chanal, J., Ratelle, C. F., Marsh, H. W., Larose, S., &Boivin, M. (2010). Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80 (4), 711–735.

Hallinger, P. (2011). Leadership for learning: lessons from 40 years of empirical research, Journal of Educational Administration,49, 2,125-142.
Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (1996). Reassessing the principal's role in school effectiveness: a review of empirical research, 1980-1995. Educational Administration Quarterly, 32(1),5-44.

Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (1998). Exploring the principals’ contribution to school effectiveness: 1980-1995. School effectiveness and school improvement,9(2), 157-191
Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (2002). What do you call people with visions? The role of vision, mission and goals in school leadership and improvement, InLeithwood, K.A. and Hallinger, P. (Eds.),Second International Handbook of Educational Leadership and Administration, 2nd ed., Kluwer, Dordrecht.
Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (2010). Collaborative leadership and school improvement: understanding the impact on school capacity and student learning. School Leadership and Management, 30(2), 95-110.
Hallinger, P., & Murphy, J. (1985). Assessing the instructional leadership behaviour of principals. Elementary School Journal, 86(2), 217-48.

Hallinger, P., & Murphy, J. (1986). The social context of effective schools. American Journal of Education,94(3), 328-355.

Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (2014). Modeling the longitudinal effects of school leadership on teaching and learning", Journal of Educational Administration, 52(5), 653-681, doi: 10.1108/JEA-08-2013-0097

Halpin, A.W., & Croft, D. B. (1963). The organizational climate of Administration Centre, University of Chicago.

Halpin, A. (1966). Theory and research in administration. Macmillan: New York.

Hofman, W. H. A., & Hofman, R. H. (2011). Smart management in effective schools: effective management configurations in general and vocational education in the Netherlands, Educational Administration Quarterly, 47(4), 620-645.

Hoy, W. K. (2012). School characteristics that make a difference for the achievement of all students: A 40-year academic odyssey. Journal of Educational Administration.

Hoy, W. K., &Miskel, C. G. (1991). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice,( 4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hil.

Hoy, W. K., &Miskel, C. G. (2001). Educational administration: Theory, research and practice, (6th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Hoy, W. K., &Miskel, C. G. (2005). Educational Administration, (7th ed.),
McGraw-Hill, NewYork, NY.

Hoy, W. K., &Miskel, C. G. (2008). Educational Administration, (8th ed.), McGraw- Hill, NewYork, NY.

Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., & Bliss, J. R. (1990). Organizational climate, school health andeffectiveness: A comprehensive analysis. Educational Administration Quarterly, 26(3), 260-279.

Hoy, W. K., & Woolfolk, A. E. (1993). Teacher's sense of efficacy and the organizational health of schools. Elementary School Journal, 93(4), 355–372.

Jahanian, R., & Mitra Ebrahimi, M. (2013). Principles for Educational Supervision and Guidance. Journal of Sociological Research 4 (2), 380-390.

Jazzar, M. &Algozzine, B. (2006). Critical issues in educational leadership. Boston: Pearson.

Jencks, C. S., Smith, M., Ackland, H., Bane, M. J., Cohen, D., &Ginter, H. (1972). Inequality: A reassessment of the effect offamily and schooling in America New York: Basic Books.
Lee, M., Walker, A., & Chui, Y. L. (2012). Contrasting effects of instructional leadership practices on student learning in a high accountability context.Journal of Educational Administration, 50(5).
Lezotte, L. (Oktober 1989). Elemen of efective school waterford, Mine: Specch to administrative council, water ford seolDistrick. Attributed To Frank Maki Arola, Chancel lor of new york city School (Juli 1978 to february 1983).
Li, L., Hallinger, P., &Ko, J. (2016). Principal leadership and school capacity effects on teacher learning in Hong Kong. International Journal of Educational Management, 30(1), 76-100. DOI 10.1108/IJEM-03-2014-0035

MacBeath, J. (2004). International comparisons. Education Journal, 77, 21.

Mart C.T., (2013). A Passionate Teacher: Teacher Commitment and Dedication to Student Learning. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 2(1): 2226-6348.
Milam, A. J., Furr-Holden, C. D. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Perceived school and neighbourhood safety, neighbourhood violence and academic achievement in urban school children.Urban Review, 42(5), 458-467.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis - An expanded Sourcebook. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Mintzberg, H. (1973). The nature of managerial work. New York: Harper and Row.
Mortimore, P. (1991). Effective schools from a British perspective, Chapter 7.In J. R. Bliss, W. A., Firestone & C. E., Richards (Ed.),Rethinking effective schools: Research andpractice. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Mortimore, P., Sammons, P., Stoll, L., Lewis., D., & Ecob, R. (1988a). The effects of school membership on pupils' educational outcomes. Research Papers in Education,3(1): 3-26.
Mortimore, P., Sammons, P., Ecob, R., & Stoll, L. (1988b). School Matters: The Junior Years, Open Books, Salisbury.
Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M. (1982). Employee-organization linkages: The psychology of commitment,absenteeism and turnover. New York: Academic Press.
Muhammad Ma’lum. (2016). Kepimpinan guru besar di Sekolahrendah berprestasi tinggi dan berprestasi rendah. PhD thesis, Universiti Utara Malaysia.
Murphy, J., & Louis, K. S. (Eds.).(1999). Handbook of research on educational administration (pp. 337-358). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Murphy, M. M. (2006). The history and philosophy of education: Voices of educational pioneers. Upper Saddle River, N J: Pearson Education.

Neville, R. F., & Garman, N. B. (1999). The philosophical perspective on supervision. In G. Firth & E. Pajak (Eds.), Handbook of Research on School Supervision (pp. 200–241). New York: NY: Simon & Schuster Macmillan.
Nor Asikin Salleh. (2008). Model sekolahberkesan: Satukajiankessekolah- sekolah Kebangsaan luar bandar. PhD thesis, Universiti Utara Malaysia.
Republik Indonesia. (2003). Undang-undangsistempendidikannasionalnomor 20 Tahun 2003.(Cet.II); Bandung; Fokusmendia.
Republik Indonesia. (2005). Peraturan Pemerintah RI Nomor 19 Tahun 2005 tentangStandarNasionalPendidikan. Jakarta: DepartemenPendidikan Nasional.
Reynolds, D. (1995). The effective school: an inaugural lecture. Evaluation and Research in Education, 9(2),57-73.
Reynolds, D., &Teddlie, C. (2000). The process of school effectiveness.In C. Teddlie& D. Reynolds (Eds.), The International Handbook of School Effectiveness (pp. 134-159). London: Falmer Press.
Reynolds, D., Teddlie, C., Stringfield, S., &Creemers, B. (2002).World class Schools. International perspectives on school effectiveness, Routledge Falmer, London.
Reynolds, D., Chapman, C., Kelly, A., Muijs, D., & Sammons, P. (2012). Educational effectiveness: The development of the discipline, the critiques, the defence, and the present debate.Effective Education, 3(2), 1–19.
Robinson, V., Hohepa, M., & Lloyd, C. (2009). School leadership and student outcomes: Identifying what works and why. Best evidence synthesis [BES]. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education.
Robinson, V., Lloyd, C., & Rowe, K. (2008). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: an analysis of the differential effects of leadership types, Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(5), 635-74.